Pravidla WWI ACES

1. R/C WWI Air Combat

1.1 About R/C WWI Air Combat

The game R/C WWI Air Combat is designed to recreate the air wars of WWI in a historical perspective, in a enjoyable, safe, scale competition that will be interesting for spectators and challenging for the contestants.


1.2 General rules

All FAI regulations covering the R/C-flier, his plane and equipment, shall apply to this event, except as noted herein. The contestant is solely responsible for airworthiness of A/C used in contest. The arranging group and the main judge, are responsible of frequency control during the event.


1.3 Safety

Safety matters have always highest priority. Any conduct by a contestant deemed by the main judge or contest arranging group to be hazardous will be cause for immediate disqualification of the contestant from the event.
Any contestant that is not known to the arranging group, might be ordered to make a test flight, to prove that he is capable of flying a 1/8 scale warbird.


2. Contest site

2.1 Fig 1 below shows a typical suggested layout for a large combat competition airfield. A safety line must be used to keep flying aircraft a safe distance from the pilot line. When space allows, the organizing authority should allow the maximum practical distance between the flying area and the safety fencing. Distance guidelines can be seen in the diagram (fig 1) below.

2.2.1 Flight area

The flight area is always in front of the safety line. Any model that ends up in front of the landing zone may not be fetched during the fight, or while other models are airborne.


2.2.2 Landing zone

A landing zone should be clearly defined by the contest organizers. Only aircraft landing inside the landing zone are allowed to be retrieved and allowed to attempt a restart.

Resp. § 4.6 Restarts


2.2.3 Safetyline

The safety line runs parallel to and is situated 5 – 8 meters in front of the pilot line. Aircraft are not permitted to fly closer to the pilots than this line allows. Any aircraft crossing this safety line will be subject to the penalty and disqualification rules that are in effect from the time the competition is officially opened until the competition is officially closed by the organizing authority. This includes all flights of aircraft for any reason. (See Fig 1)

The safetyline can be different for start and landing. But no flight over pilots or audience.


2.3 Start pits and readiness area

The start pit area should allow a distance of 3 – 5 meters spacing between pilots. The readiness line should run parallel to and situated 10 meters behind the start pits. All pilots and helpers should start behind this line. At smaller venues it is possible to use the safety line as the readiness line. (See Fig 1)


2.4 Audience

The audience should be kept at a safe distance (at least 40-60m) behind the safety line, or be protected by protective devices, such as nets, etc. The area protected by safety nets is defined as an area starting from the point where the net ends, and to a distance equal to the net height. This means that for a 3m vertical net, the safe area is measured from behind the net and 3 meters back. In addition, the first meter behind the net should be considered as unsafe. All other areas within 60 meters from the safety line should be fenced off, for people not wearing hard-hats.

2.5 First Aid

On the contest site, a spot should be marked up as the first aid spot. At this spot, basic first aid equipment should be available for instant use, in case of an accident.


3 Equipment


3.1 The model

3.1.1 The model must be a scale or semi scale A/C of a warbird, which took part in WWI battles from August 1914 to November 1918.

The original A/C engine must have a take off power of at least 60hp. The scale is 1:8 and the wing span and fuselage length may not deviate more than +/-5% from scale. All other measures may not deviate more than 2cm from scale. The fuselage length is measured in-between the leading edge and the rear edge of the fuselage, or the backside of the propeller(s), if any.

No protruding devices may exist on the front leading edge of the wing, stabilizer and fin. The wing

The wing thickness must be 10% or more, measured at the thickest point of the chord.

Exception: Original concave profiles can keep the original thickness. Multiwing points

A model with more than one wing (biplane, triplane) gets 50 optional points. Wing structure

The wings shall be build like the original in spars and ribs. Usage of EPP or similar material for the wings is not allowed. A original build wing gets 30 optional points.


3.1.3 Streamer catcher

No protruding devices may exist on the front leading edge of the wing, stabilizer and fin. No streamer catchers are aloud.


3.1.4 Colour and markings

The A/C must look similar to the original A/C, including painting and Decorations. The competitor should bring a published 3-plane view of the original A/C-type, in at least 1:72 scale, to the competition to show that his A/C is accurate according to measures. Pilot

If the cockpit is open, a pilot must be on board. A Pilot on board can get 10 optional points. Wires and struts

If the wing has struts, the model must have these, too.

For cable wires, the model can get 10 optional points. Guns

If the original A/C has guns, the model can get 10 optional points. Builder

The contestant does not have to be the builder of the model.


3.2 Engine

Mufflers made by other manufacturers may be used. Extension parts may be used to get the muffler outside of the fuselage. The contestant must be able to shut-off the engine in the air, whatever the attitude of the A/C.


3.2.1 Engine points

Four stroke Engines are the best for this model class and can get 50 optional points.


3.3 Engine size

The model may use a .30 4-stroke engines, four stroke engines can get 50 optional points.

A .15 2-stroke engine can also be used.

Electrical engines may be used, but in accordance to 3.4.


3.4 Engine performance and propeller

The following table applies for maximum engine performance.

And what propeller has to be used.


3.4.1 Engine size V-engines

Four Strokes

RPM max       Diameter x Pitch

– .30 (5ccm)                12.000             10×4

Two Strokes

– .15 (2,5ccm)             16.000             9×3

– .15 (2,5ccm)             12.000             8×4


3.4.2 Electric engine size

To limit the E-engines power, we use the max. accu capacity. Maximum is 37Wh. Example: 3S 3300mAh or 4S 2500mAh.

The maximum propeller to be used has a diameter of 10 inch. The sum of RPM and pitch of the prop may be 48 (rpm x pitch).

– 12.000 10×4  for example

– 10.200 10×4,7  for example

– 9.600 10×5  for example

– 8.000 10×6  for example


Revolution measurement is executed in certain cases, based on the main judges and/or organizers decision. Revolution measurement, if any, has to take place before the heat during readiness. The RPM is measured at full throttle, and with the setting used in contest. The measuring party should have full access to both the engine/model and the controlling transmitter. It is the contestant’s responsibility to ensure that the engine is within the limits using the RPM meter(s) used by the arranging group.


3.4.3 Propeller homologation

Only propellers that are commercially available in the country the

contest is held may be used. As commercially available means the propeller can be bought in normal hobby-shops. All propellers used on the model aircraft must be of a safe design for its proposed use. (The use of electric or slow fly propellers with an IC engine is prohibited.)


3.5 Model weight

The minimum weight is 800g (empty fuel tank), the maximum weight before start is 1.700g.


3.6 Streamer

The streamer is 12 +/- 0,5 meters long one piece. It shall be 10-15mm wide. Not longer than 15 meters. Material shall be suitable for proper indication of cuts, e.g. withstand moisture.

The streamer is marked on both ends for about 0,5 meters respectively.


3.7 Helmet

A helmet must be used by any person that is in front of the

audience line. The helmet should cover the upper part of the

head and put up with a direct hit of an A/C.


3.8 Radio equipment

Every contestants radio equipment should be range checked

before the contest. The contestant is responsible for proper

operation of the radio equipment.


3.9 Building material

Here are no concrete rules, yet.

Please build the wings like the original in spars and ribs, not in plating styropor. See


4 The contest


4.1 Structure

Each fight consists of at least two and at most six pilots that fly against each other. When all pilots have flown exactly one fight, this is called a round. The next round, flight-lists are changed to make it possible for as many pilots as possible to meet each other in different fights. The number of rounds flown at a contest is decided by the arranging group, and must be told in the contest-invitation. The number of rounds is recommended to be three. A contest also has a final which is flown after the rounds In the final, the seven pilots with the highest scores meet. The pilot who has most points after the final wins the contest.


4.2 Fights

A fight is divided into three parts: The preparation, readiness and flight part.


4.2.1 The preparation part

The length of the preparation part may be set by the arranging group, but is recommended to be 7 minutes at smaller contests. It is marked by the main judge blowing three signals in his whistle and calling out ”Seven minutes to readiness”. During the preparation-part test flights may be performed. 30 seconds before the preparation-part ends, the main judge blows two signals in his whistle and calls out ”30 seconds to readiness”.


4.2.2 The readiness part

Readiness follows immediately after the preparation part, and is marked by the main judge calling out ”Readiness”. During readiness all pilots and helpers shall be behind the readiness line. All equipment must remain in the start pits, and engines may not be running. Readiness may vary in length, upon the main judge’s decision.


4.2.3 The flight part

The flight part starts when the main judge blows one long signal in his whistle. Pilots and helpers may now run to their A/C, and get them airborne. Take off

The start can be made with several procedures. The location and wind direction is important, safety first.

Version Germany: The pilot with the first running engine can use the landing field to take off. After his start he goes back to the start pit and the next pilot starts. And so on. After leaving this starting area the game is on for this pilot. During takeoff attacks on ground targets, or enemy streamers are NOT allowed!

Version Finland:

After signal from main judge, pilots and their helpers start the engines and put the models on the runway. When all models are on the runway and pilots and helpers behind the safety line the main judge gives the signal for take-off. At that time the clock is on (7 min). All planes start the same time. If pilot has problem with take off, he must wait until all models are safely away. Then he can pick his model and start again.

Another alternative take-off method:

A signal is given and pilots have two minutes time to get their planes in the air from runway. After two minutes a signal is given and the clock is on (7 min). During the 2 min takeoff time, attacks on ground targets, or enemy streamers are NOT allowed!


If the streamer is not intact at the take off moment (first take-off), no point is counting. The AC must land and pick up a new streamer. Fight

The fight begins according the chosen take off procedure.

The Organisation can insert a special start-signal of dogfight.

The flight-part ends when the main judge blows one long signal in his whistle. Landing

The pilots may now fly freely in front of the safety line, and land at their own discretion.

If they now land inside the landing field they get 25 points to end their mission at their home base. Abnormal termination or intermitting flights don’t count for this points.

As soon as all A/C has landed, the next preparation part may start.


4.3 Helpers

Every contestant may have a helper. Only one helper is allowed to stick with the pilots line during the fight.


4.4 Take off

look at Take off


4.5 Flight time points

Maximum flight-time is seven minutes. One point per three seconds airborne, is given.

Flight time points start with the first second of flight time. Flight time points are awarded up to a maximum score of 138 (6:54 min). Resp.  appendix 4.5


4.6 Restarts

An unlimited number of restarts are allowed during a fight. When a pilot attempts to fetch his plane from the landing zone (resp. § 2.2.2), (during a heat) he must get a permission from the main judge. The main judge then gives an alarm and ensures that all the pilots are aware of the situation. A restart must be made from the same place the first start was made. Restarts are only allowed if the model ends up in the landing zone, after landing. Restarts shall be conducted solely between the start pit allocated to the individual pilot and the safety line.


4.7 Change of A/C

The same A/C must be used throughout one fight. A new A/C may be used the next fight. The model is defined as main parts of fuselage and wing.


4.8 Crossing of lines

A crossing is made either the A/C is airborne or is moving on the ground. When airborne the A/C must be clearly over the line. On the ground, the engine counts. If a model has several engines, any engine crossing the line counts.


4.9 Safety line crossing

The first time a pilot crosses the safety line with a model during a contest, the pilot receives a minus point penalty. The second time a pilot crosses the safety line with a model, the pilot is immediately disqualified from the contest, and ordered to land immediately if airborne. He keeps his positive and negative points awarded up to the time of his second SL crossing.


4.10 Lost streamer

It is the contestant’s responsibility to get airborne with a streamer of appropriate and full stretched length attached to his A/C. After landing, missing or entangled streamer counts as lost (no +50p given), except if the streamer was lost during landing, which must be proved by finding the missing streamer. To gain the intact streamer bonus, the model and streamer must have been airborne during the fight at least 10 seconds.


4.11.1 Streamer cut

A contestant that cuts streamer off an enemy A/C in the air, gains +100p. If having an enemy streamer stuck to the model, the following rules apply: A cut made to a stuck streamer, counts as a cut on enemy streamer, and the contestant making the cut gains +100p. If having a stuck streamer cut by an opponent, the contestant does not lose his streamer-points. Only cuts made to the streamer actually attached to the contestant’s model count. If during one flyby cuts are made to several streamers (own and stuck) or several cuts are made to the same streamer, this only counts as one cut made to enemy streamer.

If the attacking plane makes a streamer cut and kills the defending aircraft, in the same attack/fly by, due to a collision. This streamer cut is not counted (no cut points awarded).


4.11.2 ground target

The organisation can install 3-6 ground targets. A hit of these targets counts 50 points. To cut the targets, the organisation team define the cutting direction (against the wind, if possible)





4.12 Collision

If two or more A/C have been apparently involved into a midair collision, a clear proceeding is applied: The contestant, whose A/C remains flying after a midair collision may decide to continue flying to gain further flight points. No kill points nor consolation points will be given. Flight time shall be stopped when the fuselage of the A/C hits the ground.


4.13 Non-engagement rule

If a pilot stays away from combat for more than 30 seconds, he should be warned by the main judge. If the pilot still after this stays away from combat for an additional 30 seconds after the warning, the pilot should receive a non-engagement penalty of -50p. A pilot who after the first warning tells the main judge he has technical problems should immediately try to land his model, in a location and manner safe for the contestants and the audience.


4.14 Tie

If the final points are equal for two pilots, the one with highest points in the final wins. If it is still equal, the pilot with the highest points from one single fight (except from the final) in the contest wins.


4.15 Frequencies

Contestants must be able to change between at least two frequencies. When a frequency collision occurs in the final, the contestant with the lowest total score shall change frequency. This change must be given extra time, so that the preparation part of the final does not start until the change is done. It is the contestants responsibility to avoid frequency-collisions at changes from the given frequency.


4.16 Complaints

If the weather or other conditions gets bad at a contest or as soon as a participating pilot complains about the weather or other conditions to the arranging group, the arranging group shall take a ballot among the pilots to decide if the contest should be postponed, or cancelled and how the results from the contest should be decided.


4.17 Protest

Any contestant can make a protest against judges decisions. Protests shall always be decided by taking a ballot among the contestants. This should be done as soon as possible. A protest charge should be taken. If the protest is sustained, the protest charge is returned.


5 Judges


5.1 Main judge

The main judge is responsible for the overall timing of the contest. He is also responsible for keeping contestants behind the safety line when A/C are airborne. Cheating resp. the attempt to cheat shall be avenged with disqualifying the contestant. The main judge decision shall be based on a pilots voting.


5.2 Safety judge

The safety judge is responsible for the overall safety of the contest. This judge has higher authority than the main judge, when it comes to safety. The safety judge should warn for safety hazards during a fight. He shall position himself in such a kind that he is able to spot safety line crossings clearly. He is also responsible of that there are no people not wearing hard hats outside of any safety net zone(s).


5.3 Pilot judge

The pilot judge is obliged to note points for the pilot on a scoreboard, and keep record of the pilots flight-time. Furthermore he or she is responsible to register safety line crossing together with the safety judge, non engagement and collision and to check the pilot’s streamer after the fight as well. The pilot judge shall check the A/C before and immediately after the heat regarding streamers or parts of it sticking to the A/C. This shall take place in accordance with the pilot, confirmed by a signature on the pilot´s card. If situation remains obscure after landing, the main judge has to draw a decision immediately.


6 Points


The following system of points apply. Note that no decimal points

are given.


6.1 Minus/plus points

6.1.1 basic point system

Start from the ground                                    +50

Landing in Landing field after end signal    +25

Own streamer uncut during fight                  +50

Ground target                                                +50

Cutting streamer off enemy A/C                   +100

Flight-time, per 3 seconds   +1 up to             +138

Crossing safety line (applies all day)             -200

Non-engagement                                           -50


6.1.2 optional points

Model with 4-stroke engine                          +50      (3.2.1 Engine points)

Biplane/ Triplane                                           +50      ( Multiwing points)

Wing structure                                               +30      ( Wing structure)

Pilot on board                                                +10      ( Pilot)

Cable wires                                                    +10      ( Wires and struts)

Guns                                                              +10      ( Guns)


6.1.4 max. optional points

The sum of the optional points is 150 optional points.



These bonus points are to favour the 4-stroke biplane, which are

looking scale. I think that it is better to give points, than to give

penalty points for 2-stroke mono planes.



Every nation can modify these optional point rules, but before contest the rules

should be written in the supplement regulations of the contest.

But don’t modify the basic point system of ACES


Rainer Handt

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